Diversity Outbred

Diversity Outbred


The Diversity Outbred (DO) is a heterogeneous stock derived from the same eight founder strains as the Collaborative Cross (CC) inbred strains: A/J, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, NOD/ShiLtJ, NZO/HlLtJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ.

Diversity OutbredContent

In 2009, animals representing 144 independent lineages from the CC breeding colony at The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Chesler et al. 2008) were used to seed the DO population, which was then maintained as a randomized breeding colony with a population size of 175 pairs.

One female and one male from each first litter are randomly assigned to a new breeding pair to make the next generation. This mating scheme doubles the effective population size and minimizes the effects of drift and selection on allele frequencies in the DO (Rockman and Kruglyak 2008; unpublished simulations). Each DO mouse is a unique individual with a high level of allelic heterozygosity, and the DO population provides an effectively unlimited source of novel allelic combinations.

The CC strains are being inbred to produce stable clones. The DO mice, on the other hand, are being maintained as an outbred stock. Advantages of outbreeding include, normal levels of heterozygosity, similar to the human genetic condition, and substantially increased mapping resolution. A drawback of the DO is that each animal is genetically unique and thus not reproducible. Combinations of genetic loci that are discovered in the DO mice can be replicated in CC strains or in their reproducible F1 progeny. In this regard, the CC and DO populations are complementary. Together these new resources will revolutionize our understanding, treatment and ultimately, prevention of pervasive human diseases.


DO Founder Allele Proportions: G8 - G11 (PDF)


  • Diversity Outbred Genotype Data
    Logan RW
    High-precision genetic mapping of behavioral traits in the diversity outbred mouse population
  • Gatti_etal_2017



Gatti DM, Weber SN, Goodwin NC, Lammert F, Churchill GA
Pharmacogenomics J. 2017 Jun 13. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2017.23
Chesler EJ, Gatti DM, Morgan AP, Strobel M, Trepanier L, Oberbeck D, McWeeney S, Hitzemann R, Ferris M, McMullan R, Clayshultle A, Bell TA, Pardo-Manuel de Villena F, Churchill GA
G3 (Bethesda). 2016 Dec 7;6(12):3893-3902. doi: 10.1534/g3.116.035527.
Gatti DM, Svenson KL, Shabalin A, Wu LY, Valdar W, Simecek P, Goodwin N, Cheng R, Pomp D, Palmer A, Chesler EJ, Broman KW and Churchill GA
G3. 2014;4(9):1623-33
Munger SC, Raghupathy N, Choi K, Simons AK, Gatti DM, Hinerfeld DA, Svenson KL, Keller MP, Attie AD, Hibbs MA, Graber JH, Chesler EJ, and Churchill GA
Genetics. 2014;198(1):59-73


Developing the Laboratory Mouse as a Tool for Systems Genetics

Gary Churchill

Animal Models and Their Value in Predicting Drug Efficacy and Toxicity New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY

Thursday, September 15, 2011
DOQTL Workshop

Daniel Gatti

IMGC 2014, Bar Harbor, ME, USA

Tuesday, October 28, 2014
DOQTL Workshop

Daniel Gatti

CTC 2014, Berlin, Germany

Monday, May 19, 2014
Genetic analysis of RNA editing in the Diversity Outbred mice

Tongjun Gu, Robert E. Braun, Gary A. Churchill

Gordon Research Conference on RNA Editing, Galveston, TX

Sunday, January 6, 2013
Mapping Toxicity Traits Using the Diversity Outbred Mice

Daniel Gatti

Genetically Diverse Mouse Models Workshop, ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, Washington, DC

Wednesday, November 28, 2012
RNA-seq Alignment to Individualized Genomics

Steve Munger

40th Maine Biological and Medical Sciences Symposium, Bar Harbor, ME

Friday, April 12, 2013